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Thread: THE Beginner's Simba Tutorial

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    Default THE Beginner's Simba Tutorial

    THE Beginner's Tutorial
    This tutorial was last updated on September 23rd, 2012.

    Introduction
    Hello, and welcome to the first of three of my all-in-one scripting tutorials. This is a rewrite of the beginner's section of my All-In-One SCAR Scripting Tutorial. Throughout this tutorial, you will learn many different scripting techniques, commands, and habits I’ve picked up during my time here at SRL.

    As well as learning how to script in Simba, you will be learning the programming basics which will help you learn other, more complicated programming languages such as Java, Python or C/C++ (there are many more). Simba allows programming in the Pascal programming language so naturally, that is the language I'll be teaching you.

    I will be taking you through the different concepts step by step, starting with the basics. Keep in mind that no prior programming knowledge is required for you to understand this guide (but of course, it would be helpful).

    Before continuing through this guide, you need to make sure you have installed Simba and SRL properly. If you don't know how to do this, you can follow this tutorial to do so -> How to install/setup Simba! This is very important: I highly suggest that as you read this tutorial, you do the examples as they are taught to you. This way you will have a much better understanding of the concept.

    I would also like you to please post any spelling/grammar/formatting mistakes I will probably make somewhere throughout the guide. If you want, this tutorial can be downloaded as a PDF, here.


    Table of Contents
    • Simba - The Basics
      • Knowing Simba
      • The Basic Types
      • Procedures and Functions
      • Constants and Variables
      • Putting it all Together
    • Standards
    • Scripting Tips/Hints
      • Codehints/Simba Library
      • Simba and SRL Documentation
      • HotKeys
      • The "Tab" Button
    • Programming Statements
      • If..Then..Else Statements
      • Cases
      • Loops
        • Repeat..Until
        • While..Do
        • For..To..Do
        • Internal Commands
      • Try..Except..Finally Statements
      • Putting it all Together
    • The SRL Include
    • DeclarePlayers & S.M.A.R.T.
    • Failsafes
    • Antiban and AntiRandoms
    • Conclusion


    Simba - The Basics
    Knowing Simba
    • When you open Simba, you will notice a blank script that looks like this:
      Simba Code:
      program new;
      begin
      end.
    • The program New; part is what your script will be called. The program can be changed to whatever fits your interest. For example, you could change it to "Bobs_Amazing_Woodcutter" or "JoesMiner". Notice the "_" used instead of " ", this is because in any programming language, there cannot be spaces in names. This includes the names of procedures and functions (more on that later).

    • The begin..end. is called your Main Loop. Simba will read the code in your main loop as your script and run is as you please. If you would like Simba to run a function or procedure, you have to include them in your main loop. More on script structure later.

    • Over on the left, you have the Functions List. You'll notice that there's several categories to choose from. These are all the built-in Simba functions that you can use at any time you wish.

    • Just below the Functions List, you have the Library Search Bar. In my opinion, this is one of the most useful Simba features as it allows you to search for any function/procedure that you wish. Type in "Color" (without quotes), and watch as it narrows the list down to only the functions/procedures that contain the word "Color".

    • At the bottom of the window you'll see a white box with some writing in it. This is called the Debug Box. Any errors you may have with yours or someone else's script, will come up in this box.

    • Here is an image to better explain the Simba components.




    The Basic Types
    • This was taken straight out of the SCAR Manual, I couldn't have explained it better myself.



    Procedures and Functions
    • Procedures and functions are similar, yet different. Functions return a specified type such as a boolean or an integer whereas a procedure doesn't return any type, it just does what it's told.

    • To start off, I am going to explain to you the structure of functions and procedures using the following example:
      Simba Code:
      function IntToStr(i: LongInt): String;
      1. The function part is where it determines whether a function or a procedure is going to be used. If a procedure was going to be used, it would take place of "function"..

      2. Following function, is the name of the procedure/function. In this case, the name is "IntToStr", which stands for Integer To String, and simply converts an integer to a string. The name can be anything you want, as long as it contains no spaces (like the program name).

      3. Inside the parentheses, we have the parameters of the procedure/function. In this example, there is one parameter, i. As you can see, i is declared as a LongInt, which is the same thing as an integer.

      4. Following the closed brackets is the Result of the function. In this case, the result is a string. However, the result can be whatever fits your needs (i.e. String, Integer, Boolean). Remember that this part is always left out of procedures. When I say "Result", I mean the undeclared variable that needs to be used somewhere in the function.


    • The WriteLn procedure is a very useful procedure that can tell you why your script worked or why it didn't work. It is used a lot in a process called "Debugging" which simply means - removing all the bugs from your script so everything works well. All this procedure does is write the string (s) to the debug box.
      Simba Code:
      procedure WriteLn(s: String);
    • Try this:
      Simba Code:
      program HelloWorld;

      procedure WriteInDebugBox;
      begin
        WriteLn('Hello world!'); // Notice the ';' at the end of the line; make sure you have that at the end of each line, otherwise you will most likely get an error
      end;
      // Notice the ';'  This must be at the end of every procedure/function in your script
      // Only the "end" in your main loop should be followed by a '.' to signal the end of the the script

      begin
        WriteInDebugBox; // See how I call the procedure in my main loop?  Without this step, the script wouldn't do anything
      end.
    • Now when you hit run (the green play button at the top of Simba), do you see the "Hello world!" in the debug box? That is probably one of the simplest scripts you're going to see. You can change "Hello world!" to anything that you want to see in the debug box.

    • Try this:
      Simba Code:
      program HelloWorldFunction;

      function GetNumber: Integer;
      begin
        Result := 10; // Because the function returns an integer, there is a variable "Result" that needs to be used; it needs to be set to an integer
      end;

      begin
        WriteLn(IntToStr(GetNumber)); // Because Result is an integer, and WriteLn requires a string, we use IntToStr
      end.
    • Now when you hit run, you should see "10" in the debug box. Do you see the difference between a procedure and a function? It may not seem like much of a difference now, but once you get into more advanced scripting techniques, it will make a huge difference in your script.


    Constants and Variables:
    • Constants are usually declared at the beginning of your script, and remain constant throughout your whole script. They are declared like this, and can be used in any procedure/function throughout your script:
      Simba Code:
      program new;

      // Constants should be in ALL_CAPITALS to easily distinguish what's a constant and what's a variable
      const
        LOGS = 100;

      begin
      end.
      Pretty simple I'd say.

    • Variables can be declared in two different ways:


      1. Globally - means you would declare it at the top of your script, and can be used throughout all procedures/functions. It can also be reset at any time.
      2. Locally - means you would declare it inside a procedure/function and would only use it for that procedure/function. It can only be reset in the function/procedure it was declared in.

      Simba Code:
      program Variables;

      // Globally, should start with a capital letter then "camel-capped"
      var
        NumberOfLogs: Integer;

      // Locally, should start with a lowercase letter then "camel-capped"
      function WriteInDebugBox: Integer;
      var
        b: Boolean;
      begin
        // I can use "b" in this function only
        // I can use "NumberOfLogs" in this function as well as other functions/procedures
      end;

      procedure SayHello;
      begin
        // I can use "NumberOfLogs" in this procedure as well as in the above function
      end;

      begin
      end.
      Not too hard, is it?


    Putting it all Together
    • Now that you've learned the absolute basics, we are going to make a small script, tying everything together. You'll also learn a few new useful commands in the process.
      Simba Code:
      program PuttingTogetherBasics;

      // Declareing variables globally
      var
        Logs: Integer;
        Exps: Extended;

      // Declareing constants
      const
        NUMBER_OF_LOGS = 500;      // Notice the integer
        TREE_TO_CUT    = 'Magic';  // Notice the string

      // Using a procedure
      procedure HowManyLogs;
      begin
        // This is how we ASSIGN a type to a variable; Remember this ;)
        Logs := 250; // Notice we can use the variable "Logs" because it's declared globally
        Exps := 195.5;

        WriteLn('We have chopped ' + IntToStr(Logs) + ' logs this session!'); // Notice the '+', this is required if you are going to WriteLn a constant or variable
        Wait(500); // This is new, but don't worry; this is a simple procedure that waits the given time in milliseconds (1000ms = 1s)
        WriteLn('We want to chop ' + IntToStr(NUMBER_OF_LOGS) + ' logs.');
        Wait(500);
        WriteLn('We are chopping ' + TREE_TO_CUT + ' trees!');
        Wait(500);
        WriteLn('We have gained ' + FloatToStr(Logs * Exps) + ' xp this session!');
        //FloatToStr is used to convert extended values to strings; it works the same as IntToStr
      end;

      // Using a function
      function WeAreBored: string;
      var // Declareing variables locally
        s: String;
      begin
        Result := 'What are we going to do now?'; // Notice that "Result" is a string because the function returns a string
        s := 'We are very bored chopping all these logs!';
        Wait(500);
        WriteLn(s); // Notice no "IntToStr" because the variable "s" is already a string
      end;

      begin // Don't forget to put your procedures/functions in the main loop!
        ClearDebug; // This procedure just clears the debug box when you click run
        HowManyLogs;
        WriteLn(WeAreBored); // Since WeAreBored returns a string and WriteLn() takes a string as its parameters, the function itself can be called
      end. //Notice the '.', signalling the end of the script
      If there is something about that script that you don't understand, don't panic! Try looking back over the section you don't understand.

    • You may ask what the point of a function like this would be. Well, this function could be used if you were going to make a progress report for your script. A progress report is something that is usually added to every script that keeps track of what the script has done. For example, how many logs it has chopped, or how many fish it has caught. Here are a couple example of progress reports in scripts I've made in the past.
      Progress Report:
      [=================================================================]
      [                 Coh3n's Draynor Chop N' Bank!                   ]
      [============================ Rev.32 =============================]
      [                                                                 ]
      [     Ran For: 85 Hours, 28 Minutes and 38 Seconds                ]
      [                                                                 ]
      [     Nick    T/F    Loads     Logs     Lvls     Exp.     Brks    ]
      [     ¯¯¯¯    ¯¯¯    ¯¯¯¯¯     ¯¯¯¯     ¯¯¯¯     ¯¯¯¯     ¯¯¯¯    ]
      [     WC01     T      118      3302      14     222884     19     ]
      [     WC02     T      115      3220      3      217350     17     ]
      [     WC03     T      114      3192      3      215460     17     ]
      [     WC04     T      110      3080      3      207900     17     ]
      [     WC05     T      107      2995      6      202162     16     ]
      [     WC06     T      96       2688      3      181440     15     ]
      [     WC07     T      91       2548      10     171990     13     ]
      [     WC08     T      107      2996      11     202230     16     ]
      [     WC09     T      88       2463      7      166252     15     ]
      [     WC10     T      82       2295      7      154912     13     ]
      [     WC11     T      66       1848      5      124740     11     ]
      [     WC12     T      65       1820      8      122850     12     ]
      [     WC13     T      76       2127      6      143572     13     ]
      [                                                                 ]
      [=================================================================]
      
      /=====================================================================================|
      |                         Coh3n's Draynor Chop N' Bank!                               |
      |                                - Revision 40 -                                      |
      |=====================================================================================|
      |                                                                                     |
      |                    Ran For: 34 Hours, 8 Minutes and 49 Seconds                      |
      |                             Program: SCAR | SMART: Yes                              |
      |______ ________ __________ _______ ________ __________ ________ ____________ ________|
      |Alias | Active | Location | Loads |  Tree  | Logs Cut | Levels | Experience | Breaks |
      |¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|
      | WC01 | True   | Bank     |  49   | Willow |  1,372   |   7    |  92,610    |   5    |
      | WC02 | True   | Bank     |  43   | Willow |  1,204   |   2    |  81,270    |   4    |
      | WC03 | True   | Bank     |  27   | Willow |  756     |   73   |  51,030    |   3    |
      | WC04 | True   | Willows  |  59   | Willow |  1,652   |   73   |  111,510   |   6    |
      | WC05 | True   | Bank     |  52   | Willow |  1,456   |   2    |  98,280    |   6    |
      | WC06 | True   | Bank     |  43   | Willow |  1,204   |   3    |  81,270    |   3    |
      | WC07 | True   | Bank     |  31   | Willow |  868     |   6    |  58,590    |   3    |
      | WC08 | True   | Willows  |  22   | Willow |  616     |   1    |  41,580    |   1    |
      | WC09 | True   | Bank     |  13   | Willow |  364     |   0    |  24,570    |   0    |
      | WC10 | True   | Willows  |  29   | Willow |  809     |   0    |  54,608    |   3    |
      | WC11 | True   | Bank     |  40   | Willow |  1,120   |   65   |  75,600    |   3    |
      | WC12 | True   | Bank     |  51   | Willow |  1,428   |   2    |  96,390    |   5    |
      | WC13 | True   | Bank     |  32   | Willow |  896     |   1    |  60,480    |   3    |
      |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
      | Totals:                  | 491   |        |  13,745  |   235  |  927,788   |  45    |
      |_____________________________________________________________________________________|
      |_____________________________________________________________________________________/

    • If you successfully made the latter script, when you hit run, your debug box should say this:
      Progress Report:
      We have chopped 250 logs this session!
      We want to chop 500 logs.
      We are chopping Magic trees!
      We have gained 48875 xp this session!
      We are very bored chopping all these logs!
      What are we going to do now?
      Successfully executed


    Congratulations! You have just made your first working script! Yay!


    Standards
    A simple definition of standards is the way you write your code. Having good standards is extremely useful for debugging and readability. Anyone that reads your script will thank you for having good standards. I urge you to develop good standards as soon as you start scripting, so you get used to it faster, and don't have to change the way you code later.

    There are many different rules you should follow when writing your code. They are as follows:
    1. When you indent, it will be two spaces. You can do this by hitting the "Tab" button on your keyboard, or simply hitting the space bar twice.

    2. Your script margins are set to 80 characters and is marked in Simba with a line straight down the right side of the scripting page. Try not to exceed that margin. If you do, no big deal, no one's going to kill you for it.

    3. The begin statement appears on its own line, and end statement always matches the begin statement by columns. For example:
      Simba Code:
      begin
        if (Condition) then // Notice the intent after a "begin" statement
        begin // Notice how the begin lines up with "if" in columns
          DoThis;
        end else
        begin
          DoThis;
        end;
      end;
      Notice how all the begins and ends line up in columns. Also, you're probably wondering what the "if (Condition) then" is. Well, don't panic, it's called an if..then..else statement, and you'll learn more on that later. But, notice how the begin after the if statement is lined up with "if" in columns. Most people make the mistake of indenting the "begin" after an if statement, which makes their code harder to read.

    4. Use semicolons at the end of all your lines. Exceptions would be at the end of var, begin, then, else, repeat, do and before else (see the above example if you don't know what I mean).

    5. Try not to combine two or more statements on one line. Each statement gets it's own line.
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      if (Condition) then DoThis;
      if (Condition) then begin DoThis; DoThat; end;

      // Good
      if (Condition) then
        DoThis;

      if (Condition) then
      begin
        DoThis;
        DoThat;
      end;
    6. Always use spaces after commas and arithmetical signs. This is also a common mistake with most scripts, and it really bugs me when people don't do this. It makes the script much harder to read without the spaces. Here is an example:
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      i:=(5*4+3);
      HowManyLogs(1,5,10);

      // Good
      i := (5 * 4 + 3);
      HowManyLogs(1, 5, 10);
    7. You should never have a white space on the inside of parenthesis. Example:
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      if ( i = 100 ) or ( k = 50 ) then
        DoThis( DoThat );

      // Good
      if (i = 100) or (k = 50) then
        DoThis(DoThat);
    8. Simba bolds keywords such as "begin, end, procedure, function, etc." These words should be entirely lowercase as it looks much better, and a lot of people find it easier to read.

    9. The names of procedures and functions should always begin with a capital letter and be camel-capped (i.e. Pascal case) for easier readability. Example:
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      procedure walktobank;

      // Good
      procedure WalkToBank;
    10. The names of procedures/functions/variables/constants should be given names meaningful to their content. A name like DoStuff is not meaningful, but name WalkToBank is. This includes a function's parameters.

    11. The layout of programming components should be easily distinguishable between one another.


      • Constants should be entirely uppercase.
        Simba Code:
        LOGS_NORMAL = 0;
        LOGS_OAK    = 1;
      • Global variables should start with an uppercase letter and then camel-capped (Pascal case). This should also be the same for a function's/procedure's parameters (excluding single lettered parameters).
        Simba Code:
        var
          TotalLogs: Integer;
          WhichTree: string;
      • Local variables should start with a lowercase letter and then camel-capped (Camel case).
        Simba Code:
        procedure Example;
        var
          i: Integer;
          tempString: string;
        begin
        end;

      You may not like the look of some of these, so you don't have to use them. There are some programming languages out there that have forced standards. Thankfully, you don't have to worry about that as Pascal has no such thing.

    12. Where possible, parameters/variables of the same type should be combined into one statement. For example:
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      var
        Logs: Integer;
        Ores: Integer;
        Fish: Integer;

      function WalkToBank(i: Integer; j: Integer; l: string; k: string): Boolean;

      // Good
      var
        Logs, Ores, Fish: Integer;

      function WalkToBank(i, j: Integer; l, s: String): Boolean;
    13. Boolean variable names must be descriptive enough so that their meanings of True and False values will be clear.
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      var
        b: Boolean;

      // Good
      var
        DoesBank: Boolean;

    14. When you declare a variable, they are put on the next line after the var statement, and are indented. Example:
      Simba Code:
      // Bad
      var Logs: Integer;

      // Good
      var
        Logs: Integer;
    15. Try to declare variables locally as much as possible to avoid confusion within the script.

    16. The use of white space is highly suggested. It makes your code look neater, it's more readable, and in general I find it to be a good habit. Also, the readers of your script will appreciate it. If you don't know what I mean, don't worry, I'll be pointing out the use of white space as the tutorial goes on.


    There, you should now have a good knowledge of Simba standards, and have no excuses for unreadable code.


    Scripting Tips/Hints
    In this section of the tutorial, you will learn independent ways of answering your scripting questions, so you don't have to post on the forums. You will also learn how to utilize Simba so that you can script faster and more efficient.

    Codehints/Simba Library
    • In addition to the functions list/library search to the left of your Simba window, we also have codehints and a list of every programming component built into Simba.

    • When you open Simba, click the mouse on a blank line and hit Ctrl + Space. A list of EVERY available function, constant, variable, type, etc. will pop up. These are all the programming components you have at your disposal.


    • You'll probably notice that the list is extremely long, and it would take forever to scroll through, examining each part. So, as you start typing something, the list will get smaller and only show the functions/procedures that begin with what you typed. Try it yourself.

    • Another thing you may be unsure of is just what a function's or procedure's parameter's are. There is also a built in feature for this. Click on any function in the function's list to the left. At the bottom of the Simba window, you should see the function name with all it's parameters.


      You've probably noticed this already, but if you type out the function once you hit the opening bracket, a small window should come up, showing the parameters.



    Simba and SRL Documentation
    • The Simba Documentation is useful for everything Simba related. You don't know exactly what a built-in function does? No problem, just head over to the Simba Documentation and navigate through the menus to where you want to be.

    • The SRL Documentation is exactly the same as the Simba documentation, except for SRL, obviously. A lot of functions include examples and explanations, so if you want to know how something works, check out the SRL Documentation.


    Hotkeys
    • Hotkeys are very simple to understand. They are just keyboard shortcuts that allow you to do certain things in Simba. Here is a list of the most useful hotkeys.


      • Run -> F9
      • Stop -> F2
      • Add Tab -> Ctrl + T
      • Save -> Ctrl + S
      • Library -> Ctrl + Space
      • Undo -> Ctrl + Z
      • Redo -> Ctrl + Y


    • That is just a list of the most useful hotkeys. To find out what other hotkeys Simba has, just look through the different pull-down menus. By pull-down menus I mean:



    The "Tab" Button
    • As you continue scripting, the tab button will become your best friend. It allows you to move multiple lines of code incredibly fast. You can move 100s of lines forward or backwards as many lines as you wish.

    • Nothing feels worse than when you need to move 300 lines of code ahead 2 spaces and you hit the space bar twice at every line. Say I want to move this code ahead two spaces to squire proper standards:
      Simba Code:
      procedure HelloWorld;
      begin
      WriteLn('Hello world!');
      Wait(500);
      WriteLn('How is the world doing today?');
      Wait(500);
      end;
      I would highlight the code in between the begin..end nest and hit Tab. My code now looks like this:
      Simba Code:
      procedure HelloWorld;
      begin
        WriteLn('Hello world!');
        Wait(500);
        WriteLn('How is the world doing today?');
        Wait(500);
      end;
    • See? Doesn't that look much better? Now, Tab moves the code ahead two spaces, but what if you want to move your code back two spaces? Well, this can be achieved by highlighting the code you want to move, and hitting Shift + Tab. Try it yourself.

    Just use these simple tips and you'll learn more, faster. Again, only post on the forums as a last resort. You learn much more if you look for things yourself! For a little more in-depth tutorial on scripting shortcuts see -> Not-so-well known SCAR shortcuts (yes, it's for SCAR, so not everything will work in Simba).


    Programming Statements
    There are many many programming statements out there. In this section of the tutorial, I will teach you the most important ones. With these statements, you'll be able to make almost any kind of script.

    If..Then..Else Statements
    • If..Then..Else statements (if statements for short) are what make scripts, scripts. They can perform checks to make sure the script is doing what it's suppose to do, and if it's on the wrong course, do something else to correct the course. Here is a small breakdown of the statement:
      Simba Code:
      // Notice the () around Condition, you should always use brackets in if statements for readability
      if (Condition) then // Condition can be any variable check, i.e. boolean, integer, string, extended
      begin // Notice the 'begin' after the 'if..then'; this is ALWAYS needed if you are going to perform more than 1 action
        Action1;
        Action2;
      end else // 'end' ends Action1/Action2; 'else' means it will do Action3/Action4 IF the Condition is not true
      begin
        Action3;
        Action4;
      end;

      if (Condition) then
        Action1 // Notice there is no ';' and no 'begin'; neither is needed if you are performing ONLY 1 action after an if statement. If you put a ';' it will result in an "Identifier expected" error
      else // Notice that there's no 'end', that's because there's no 'begin' we have to end
        Action2;
    • Now that is a pretty simple example, but you should understand how to write an if statement. Here is a little more complicated example that actually does something:
      Simba Code:
      program IfThenExample;

      procedure RandomFunction;
      var
        i: Integer;
      begin
        if (Random(10) < 5) then // Random(10) will generate a random number between 0-9
          WriteLn('Less than 5!') // Remember, no semicolon and no begin..end!
        else
          WriteLn('Greater than or equal to 5!');

        i := Random(1000); // See how I assinged i to a random integer between 0 and 999
        if ((i < 100) or (i > 500)) then // Will execute if either statement is true
        begin
          WriteLn('Small or large!'); // See how there's begin..end nests when there's more than one action?
          WriteLn('Which is it?');
        end else
        begin
          WriteLn('Somewhere in the middle!');
          WriteLn('But where...?');
        end;
      end;

      begin
        ClearDebug;
        RandomFunction;
      end.
    • I know that looks like a lot, but examine it line by line. If some part of that is confusing, just look back over that section of the tutorial, or break down the script into sections. If you successfully wrote this script, when you press run, your debug box should read something like:
      Progress Report:
      Greater than or equal to 5!
      Somewhere in the middle!
      But where...?
      Successfully executed.
    • There, it's not so hard, is it? Try playing around with the variables to get a visual of what exactly if statements do. You now fully understand what an if statement is and how to use them!


    Cases
    • Cases are used for a more efficient way of writing long and confusing code. Here is a simple breakdown of a case:
      Simba Code:
      // Notice the layout I have for a case; this ensures readability and organization
      case Condition of // Like if statements, Condition can be any variable
        Option1:
          begin // Notice the begin..end nest for more than 1 action
            Action1;
            Action2;
          end;

        Option2:
          Action3; // Notice a begin..end nest is not needed because it is only one action
      else
        Action4; // If there is not an option, it will perform Action4
      end;

      // Notice the white space (remember from earlier?) between the options
      Shouldn't be too difficult to understand.

    • Here is an example of the long and confusing code I was talking about. Be sure to not skip over this little bit as there is something new in the script.
      Simba Code:
      // Notice the white spaces I use inbetween statements
      procedure WhichSport(Sport: string); // Notice the parameter I added so I can call different "Sports" later on
      begin
        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'hockey' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);

        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'soccer' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);

        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'basketball' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);

        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'baseball' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);

        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'rugby' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);

        if Lowercase(Sport) = 'football' then
          WriteLn('The sport is ' + Sport);
      end;

      begin
        WhichSport('Hockey'); //Notice how I called the procedure with the parameter I made; it can be whichever sport you want
      end.
    • You are probably wondering what "Lowercase" is. Well...
      Quote Originally Posted by SCAR Manual
      function Lowercase(s: string): string;
      Returns the specified string in lowercase.
      This means that if you set the Sport parameter as 'hOcKeY', it will still recognize it as 'hockey'. This is handy to use in parts of your script that other people will fill out, such as DeclarePlayers(more on that later), because no matter how they write it, the script will still run as it should.

    • Now, the above script is not very pretty is it? It's also very difficult to read. So, we use a case, which would make the procedure look like this:
      Simba Code:
      program CaseExample;

      // Again, notice the white spaces
      procedure WhichSport(Sport: String);
      begin
        case Lowercase(Sport) of
          'hockey':
            WriteLn('HOCKEY!');

          'soccer':
            WriteLn('SOCCER!');

          'basketball':
            WriteLn('BASKETBALL!');

          'baseball':
            WriteLn('BASEBALL');

          'rugby':
            WriteLn('RUGBY!');

          'football':
            WriteLn('FOOTBALL!');

        else
          WriteLn('Sport is not in the selection!');
        end;
      end;

      begin
        ClearDebug;
        WhichSport('HoCkEy'); // Notice how I spelled "hockey" with capital letters, it is still recognized as "hockey"
      end.
    • Using a case not only makes your code look better, but it shortens it up quite a bit. I suggest playing with the variable Sport, so you get a better understanding of cases. Now, if you successfully made that script, when you hit run, the debug box should read:
      Progress Report:
      Successfully compiled (4 ms)
      HOCKEY!
      Successfully executed.
    • Congratulations! You now know how to use a case to make your code shorter, more efficient, and and look better!


    Loops
    • Using loops effectively can make or break a script, whether it is for RuneScape or any other program. I'm going to be teaching you three different kind of programming loops:


      • Repeat..Until
      • While..Do
      • For..To..Do


      It shouldn't be too hard to guess what each loop does, just by their name, but if you still have no idea, don't worry... just read on.

    • Repeat..Until


      • Repeat..Until loops are the easiest loop to understand and use. They will be used many times throughout your scripts. What it does is pretty straight forward - it repeats an action until it is told to stop. Simple as that. Here is a simple breakdown of the repeat..until loop:
        Simba Code:
        repeat // The 'repeat' acts like a 'begin', so 'begin' isn't necessary here
          Action1; // You can have as many actions here as you wish
          Action2;
        until(Condition(s));
        // The 'until' acts like an 'end', 'end' isn't necessary
        // You can have more than one Condition; each condition is usually separated by 'and'/'or'
      • Here is a nice, simple example that clearly shows what a repeat..until loop is all about:
        Simba Code:
        program RepeatUntilExample;

        // Can you spot when the loop will stop?
        procedure RepeatExample;
        var
          numberOfWaits: Integer;
        begin // Although 'repeat' acts like a 'begin', 'begin' is still needed here to signal the start of the procedure
          repeat
            Wait(500);
            Inc(numberOfWaits); // The Inc() command simply increases the var numberOfWaits by 1
            WriteLn('We have waited ' + IntToStr(numberOfWaits) + ' times');
          until(numberOfWaits = 5);
        end;

        begin
          ClearDebug;
          RepeatExample;
        end.
      • Pretty simple, no? The more you script, the more uses you will find for these loops, and the better you will get with them. If you successfully made the above script, your debug box should look something like this:
        Progress Report:
        We have waited 1 times.
        We have waited 2 times.
        We have waited 3 times.
        We have waited 4 times.
        We have waited 5 times.
        Successfully executed
      • Congratulations, you have learned what repeat..until loop is, and how to use it! An example of the usage of this loop is when opening a bank. You can repeatedly try to open the bank until your character has logged out, or it has tried more than 10 times.


    • While..Do


      • While..Do loops act almost exactly the same as repeat..until loops, only they are set up differently. The difference is that repeat..until loops will execute the command at least once, no matter what, whereas a while..do loop may not execute the command at all. To be honest, it doesn't really matter which one you use. There are certain situations where it would be better to use one or the other as you'll discover the more you script. Here is a simple breakdown of the loop:
        Simba Code:
        while Opposite(Condition) do // For a while..do loop, you have to set the Condition to the OPPOSITE of what you want
        begin // Again, notice the begin/end for more than one action
          Action1;
          Action2;
        end;

        while Opposite(Condition) do
          Action1; // Again, since it's only one Action, no begin..end nest is needed
      • Here is an easy example, that should clearly show you how to use a while..do loop.
        Simba Code:
        program WhileDoExample;

        procedure WhileDoExample;
        var
          count: Integer;
        begin
          while (Count <> 5) do // See how the condition is the opposite of what you want? You want the script to end when Count = 5, so while Count doesn't equal 5, do this (<> means "doesn't equal")
          begin
            Inc(Count);
            Wait(500);
            WriteLn('The count is ' + IntToStr(Count) + '.');
          end;
        end;

        begin
          ClearDebug;
          WhileDoExample;
        end.
      • In my opinion, a while..do loop is slightly more advanced than a repeat..until loop, simply because it is a little shorter, and requires some thinking to come up with the opposite condition. If you wrote the above example properly, when you press run, your debug box should look like this:
        Progress Report:
        Successfully compiled (48 ms)
        The count is 1.
        The count is 2.
        The count is 3.
        The count is 4.
        The count is 5.
        Successfully executed
      • Well there you go, you now know how to effectively use a while..do loop. A while..do loop is most commonly used in scripts that require some waiting while the character is doing something such as chopping down a tree or fishing.


    • For..To..Do


      • For..To..Do loops are the most complicated of the three loops, and can be used in the simplest functions, as well as the most advanced functions. Here is a simple breakdown of the loop:
        Simba Code:
        for (var Assignment/Start Integer) to (Finish Integer) do // For..To..Do loops increase the variable integer by one each time through the loop
        begin
          Action1;
          Action2;
        end;

        for (var Assignment/Start Integer) to (Finish Integer) do
          Action1;
      • Confused? If so, examining the following example should clear things up for you.
        Simba Code:
        program ForToDoExample;

        procedure ForToDoExample;
        var
          i: Integer;
        begin
          for i := 0 to 5 do // Notice the assignment mentioned earlier?  The assignment is the ":="
          begin
            Wait(500);
            WriteLn('The variable i = ' + IntToStr(i));
          end;
        end;

        begin
          ClearDebug;
          ForToDoExample;
        end.
      • The same type of procedure can be written using both repeat..until and while..do loops. However, for..to..do loops are much more advanced and makes for a faster script. If you managed to understand for..to..do loops, you are well on your way to becoming an awesome scripter. Successfully writing the above script results in the debug box looking like this:
        Progress Report:
        The variable i = 0
        The variable i = 1
        The variable i = 2
        The variable i = 3
        The variable i = 4
        The variable i = 5
        Successfully executed
      • If you made it through that, well done! If not, re-read the parts you don't understand because there is no point in moving on to more advanced material if you don't understand the basics. Remember to take things slowly and not to get frustrated!


    • Internal Commands


      • Quote Originally Posted by Nava2 View Post
        It is important to remember, that with ALL LOOPS, they will continue till they are done if they are not told to stop. That is why they are called Loops, they repeat.
      • Thanks Nava for that awesome little explanation. Now, there will be times that a condition is met or not met and you want the loop to break, continue, or exit, hence the three internal loop commands:


        1. The Break; command is probably the command you will be using most as when it is called, it "breaks" out of the loop and continues with the rest of the procedure or function.

        2. Continue; is a useful command when used properly. When called, it stops the loop where it is and continues from the beginning of the loop. It's important to remember that is doesn't start the loop over, it continues. Say you wanted to repeat a loop 10 times. If on the fifth cycle through you called Continue, it wouldn't start back at one, it would start at 6. Understand?

        3. Exit; is most commonly used in loops, but can be used otherwise. When called, Exit exits out of the loop and the procedure/function, and continues along with the script. It is used a lot for failsafes (more on that later). Say you have a function that's suppose to find an item in the inventory. But if the inventory isn't open, it won't work. Therefore you can call Exit; if the inventory isn't open so it won't try to find the item when it already knows it wont.


      • These commands are especially useful because they prevent the cause of what we call infinite (endless) loops. Nothing looks more like autoing then when your character is standing in the same place repeating the same thing over and over again, accomplishing nothing. Here is an example of an infinite loop:
        Simba Code:
        program InfiniteLoops;

        (**
         * Notice that it will never stop printing "Waiting..." to the debug box every
         * second because i is never reset, it is ALWAYS equal to 5. This is an example
         * of what NOT to do :p
         *)

        procedure InfiniteLoopExample;
        var
          i: Integer;
        begin
          i := 5;
          while (i = 5) do // while i equals 5
          begin
            WriteLn('Waiting...');
            Wait(1000);
          end;
        end;

        begin
          ClearDebug;
          InfiniteLoopExample;
        end.
        You'll notice that "Waiting..." will repeatedly print to the debug box until you manually execute the script. Do you know what an endless loop does? Thought so, it's pretty straight forward.

      • Here's an example that uses each type of loop and each type of internal command.
        Simba Code:
        program InternalCommandsExample;

        function RepeatUntil: Boolean;
        var
          count: Integer;
        begin
          repeat
            if (Random(100) > 75) then
            begin
              WriteLn('Greater than 75!');
              Exit; // See how it will exit if the random number is greater than 75?
            end else
              WriteLn('Less than or equil to 75!');

            Inc(count);
          until(count = 10); // If no number is greater than 75, it will repeat 10 times
        end;

        procedure ForToDo;
        var
          count: Integer;
        begin
          for count := 1 to 10 do
          begin
            if (count = 5) then
              Continue; // You'll notice that when count equals 5, nothing gets written to the debug box

            WriteLn('Count does not equal 5! Count = ' + IntToStr(count));
          end;
        end;

        procedure WhileDo;
        var
          count: Integer;
        begin
          while (count < 100) do
          begin
            if (count >= 10) then
              Break; // See how it will break out of the loop if the count is greater than or equal to 10?

            WriteLn('Count is less than 10!'); // This will not be written if count is greater than or equal to 10 because we broke out of the loop
            Inc(count); // Can't forget this, otherwise we'll have an infinite loop; take it out and run the script
          end;
        end;

        begin
          ClearDebug;
          RepeatUntil;
          ForToDo;
          WhileDo;
        end.
      • Not too difficult I hope. Do you have better understanding of the internal commands? Good. You'll find that these are essential in making a well working script and when forgotten may mean the difference of a 5 minute runtime as opposed to 5 hours.

      • When you run the above script, your debug will read something like this:
        Progress Report:
        Less than or equil to 75!
        Greater than 75!
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 1
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 2
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 3
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 4 // Notice here how there's no 5 written?
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 6 // This is because we told the loop to continue when the count was 5
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 7
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 8
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 9
        Count does not equal 5! Count = 10
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Count is less than 10!
        Successfully executed.
    • Well there you go, all the information you need to know about the three loops! If you understood everything I just showed you, I shouldn't see any infinite loops in any scripts!


    Try..Except..Finally Statements
    • These statements are probably the most difficult to understand. Like the rest, there is a time and place to use them. You'll find that there aren't many situations where they can be used, but they are extremely useful when you do.

    • Try..Except statements are used so that if your script were to encounter a runtime error (an error that happens while the script is running), it wouldn't stop, but continue on. The best example of this would be when reading a file. If you told Simba to read from a file that doesn't exist, you would get a runtime error and the script would stop. However, if you used a try..except..finally statement, the script wouldn't stop, it would continue on, but without the information that was supposed to be obtained from the file.

    • I hope that wasn't too confusing for you. There are three different ways you can write try statements. Here's a breakdown of each:
      Simba Code:
      // 1.
      try // Like a repeat loop, 'try' acts as a 'begin'
        Action1;
        Action2; // Again, there can be as many actions as you wish
      except // Short for 'exception'
        Action3;
        Action4; // If the script encounters an error in Action1/2, it will run Action3/4
      end; // This is required no matter which way you write the statement

      // 2.
      try
        Action1;
        Action2;
      finally // This will execute Action3/4 NO MATTER WHAT, even if Action1/2 was an Exit; command
        Action3;
        Action4;
      end;

      // 3.
      try // What to attempt to do
        Action1;
        Action2;
      except // What to do when it encounters an error
        Action3;
        Action4;
      finally // What to do no matter what
        Action5;
        Action6;
      end;
    • I'm sure you get the idea, but here's a short example that uses the third way of writing it. Read this one carefully because it teaches you how to write from a text file.
      Simba Code:
      program TryExceptFinallyExample;

      (**
       * Will write the string 'Text' to the file 'FileName'
       * There are several procedures/functions I use in this example that you've
       * never seen before. Don't panic! Click on the triangle beside 'Files' in the
       * functions list and you'll see them all
       *)

      function WriteToFile(Text, FileName: string): Boolean;
      var
        thePath: string;
        theFile: Integer; // When working with files, they are always of the Integer type
      begin
        // When setting the path, be sure you always end with a '\', otherwise you will get errors
        thePath := AppPath + 'Scripts\'; // This will save the file in Simba/Scripts (AppPath = Application Path)

        try
          theFile := RewriteFile(thePath + FileName, False); // Saves the file to thePath and names it 'FileName'
        except // An exception would be thrown most likely if there was an invalid file name
          WriteLn('Error opening file!');
        finally
          WriteLn('Done trying to open file');
        end;
        // Notice how I assigned the opened or created file to 'theFile', this is so we can use it later in the procedure

        if (WriteFileString(theFile, Text)) then
          Result := True;

        CloseFile(theFile); // Remember to ALWAYS close the file when you're finished! If you don't it can cause memory leaks and your script will run very slowly
      end;

      begin
        ClearDebug;
        if (WriteToFile('Test!', 'TestFile.txt')) then
          WriteLn('Successfully wrote to file!')
        else
          WriteLn('Error writing to file');
      end.
    • Now that is a lot to take in, but I know you can handle it! Take a look at all the different Simba file handling functions and procedures in the functions list. As you can see there are a lot of different things you can do. Writing to a file can be useful if you want to save progress reports. Maybe your computer crashes or some updates automatically restart the computer while your script is running. Either way, you have your report nicely saved on your computer.

    • If you successfully wrote that script, you debug should look like:
      Progress Report:
      Done trying to open file
      Successfully wrote to file!
      Successfully executed.
      Also, navigate to the folder you saved the file to (Simba/Scripts). There should be a nice text file that has "Test!" written in it.

    • If you don't fully understand these statements, don't worry, they're not used often and you can certainly write an awesome Runescape script without them.


    Putting it all Together
    • In this section of the tutorial, you will learn how to make a script using all the different programming statements I've taught you, including having some statements inside other statements (nesting). Exciting, no? In this example, I have combined all the different types of statements. Be sure to examine it carefully and make sure you understand everything you are reading. Look back in the tutorial if you need to.
      Simba Code:
      program PuttingItAllTogether;

      // To be set by the user of the script
      const
        TREE_TYPE   = 'Willow';
        LOGS_TO_CUT = 100;

      // Global vars can be 'reset' at any time during your script
      var
        TotalLogs: Integer;
        TreeName: string;
        TreeExp, TotalExp: Extended;

      // Checks to see if the constants were set properly
      function CheckSetup: Boolean;
      var
        s: string;
        logs: Integer;
      begin
        if (TREE_TYPE = '') then // If the tree type wasn't filled out
        begin
          WriteLn('Please enter a tree type at the top of the script');
          Exit;
        end;

        s := Lowercase(TREE_TYPE);
        if ((s <> 'normal') and (s <> 'oak') and (s <> 'willow')) then // if tree type isn't a valid tree
        begin
          WriteLn('Please enter a valid tree type at the top of the script');
          Exit;
        end;

        if (LOGS_TO_CUT <= 0) then
        begin
          WriteLn('Please enter a number of logs to cut at the top of the script');
          Exit;
        end;

        Result := True; // Set to true at the end because if there was an error, it exits and therefore the result is set to false
      end;

      // Notice the general layout of this function ;)
      procedure SetTreeProperties(Tree: string);
      begin
        case Lowercase(Tree) of
          'normal':
            begin
              TreeName := 'Tree';
              TreeExp := 25;
            end;

          'oak':
            begin
              TreeName := 'Oak tree';
              TreeExp := 37.5;
            end;

          'willow':
            begin
              TreeName := 'Willow tree';
              TreeExp := 67.5;
            end;

          else
            WriteLn('Invalid tree type in "GetTreeType"');
        end;
      end;

      procedure IncTotalLogs(HowMuch: Integer); // Inc = Increment
      begin
        IncEx(TotalLogs, HowMuch); // This will increment TotalLogs by HowMuch; if HowMuch = 10, TotalLogs would increase by 10
        WriteLn('Increased total logs by -> ' + IntToStr(HowMuch));
        WriteLn('Total logs chopped -> ' + IntToStr(TotalLogs));
      end;

      procedure SetTotalExp;
      begin
        TotalExp := (TotalLogs * TreeExp); // Multiply the total logs by the tree's exp
        WriteLn('Total experience gained -> ' + FloatToStr(TotalExp));
      end;

      function WriteReportToFile: Boolean;
      var
        theFile: Integer;
        thePath: string;
      begin
        thePath := AppPath + 'Scripts\Progress.txt';

        try
          theFile := RewriteFile(thePath, False);
        except
          WriteLn('Error opening file!');
        end;

        WriteFileString(theFile, 'Tree: ' + TreeName + #13 + #10); // The '#13 + #10' will skip to the next line in the file, so Exp: won't be written on the same line
        WriteFileString(theFile, 'Exp: ' + FloatToStr(TreeExp) + #13 + #10);
        WriteFileString(theFile, 'Total Logs: ' + IntToStr(TotalLogs) + #13 + #10);
        WriteFileString(theFile, 'Total Exp: ' + FloatToStr(TotalExp) + #13 + #10);

        CloseFile(theFile); // Again, don't forget this!
      end;

      begin
        ClearDebug;

        if (CheckSetup) then
          WriteLn('Script has been setup properly')
        else
          TerminateScript; // Simply terminates the script when called

        SetTreeProperties(TREE_TYPE); // Be sure to call this, otherwise the global vars aren't set

        repeat
          IncTotalLogs(Random(28)); // Will increase the TotalLogs by a random number from 0-28
          SetTotalExp;
        until(TotalLogs >= LOGS_TO_CUT); // StrToInt() avoids a type mismatch error

        WriteReportToFile;

        WriteLn('Finished!');
      end.
    • I know that looks like a lot, and most likely it will be confusing to you, but don't give up. Remember that you have to be patient when learning how to script, you aren't going to understand everything the first time.

    • If you understand the above script, and managed to experiment successfully, when you hit run, the debug box should get spammed by a bunch of words. When finished, it should look like this:
      Progress Report:
      Finished checking the user's setup
      Script has been setup properly
      Increased total logs by -> 2
      Total logs chopped -> 2
      Total experience gained -> 135
      Increased total logs by -> 18
      Total logs chopped -> 20
      Total experience gained -> 1350
      Increased total logs by -> 27
      Total logs chopped -> 47
      Total experience gained -> 3172.5
      Increased total logs by -> 5
      Total logs chopped -> 52
      Total experience gained -> 3510
      Increased total logs by -> 23
      Total logs chopped -> 75
      Total experience gained -> 5062.5
      Increased total logs by -> 17
      Total logs chopped -> 92
      Total experience gained -> 6210
      Increased total logs by -> 1
      Total logs chopped -> 93
      Total experience gained -> 6277.5
      Increased total logs by -> 6
      Total logs chopped -> 99
      Total experience gained -> 6682.5
      Increased total logs by -> 13
      Total logs chopped -> 112
      Total experience gained -> 7560
      Finished!
      Successfully executed.
    • Also, you need to check the file that was created from that script. Open Simba/Scripts/Progress.txt and a notepad file should open that looks something like this:



    Congratulations! You now know the basics of programming in Simba. You now have enough knowledge for me to introduce you to what it takes to make a working RuneScape script.


    The SRL Include
    Remember at the start of the guide when I said you needed to download SRL properly? Well here is why... SRL is comprised of all sorts of functions/procedures available for you to use. Each of them make you scripting life easier. In order to use these handy functions, you have to include and setup SRL in your script. You can do so by setting up you script like this:
    Simba Code:
    program New;
      {$i SRL\SRL.simba} // Be sure to add this to ALL your scripts!

    begin
      SetupSRL; // You also have to call this in your mainloop, otherwise the mouse will move about 1 pixel every 10 seconds :p
    end.
    At this point you should set that script as your default script. Meaning that every time you open Simba or open a new tab, you will be greeted with a script that already has SRL setup for you. Simply to to File > Save as Default.

    Now, if you navigate to Simba/Includes/SRL/SRL/, you should see three folders: skill, misc and core. When you include SRL (srl.simba), you are only including the core folder. Any other files you wish you include have to be done separately.

    For example, if I was making a script where I needed to cast some spells, I would include the Magic.simba file found in the skills folder because it has many different functions and procedures to help me script for magic. To include that file I'd simply add this at the top of my script:
    Simba Code:
    {$i srl/srl/skill/magic.simba}
    The same would be done for any skill file or any file in the misc folder. Don't be afraid to take a look through them, I'm sure you'll find some very handy functions laying around.

    Remember the functions list? Well, you'll notice that there is now a little triangle beside the word Includes. Click it, it will show the list of all the functions you have included in your script.

    Well there you go, you now know how to use any file in the SRL include.


    DeclarePlayers & S.M.A.R.T.
    The first thing you should know about making script run for RuneScape is about the DeclarePlayers. DeclarePlayers is a procedure that allows you to setup your RuneScape account(s). For example, the username, password, how many logs to cut, how many loads to bank. Obviously those are just a few examples, but the possibilities are endless.

    If you've used any scripts at SRL, then you've probably used S.M.A.R.T. (Simba Minimizing Autoing Resource Thing) created by Benland100. This tool allows you to run a script in Simba, and still do whatever you want on your computer. You still can, of course, use a standard internet browser if you wish.

    Every DeclarePlayers procedure has to be setup like this, otherwise your script won't work properly. You can, of course add attributes to allow the user to customize each player, but these are the minimum requirements. I also show you how to use S.M.A.R.T., so pay attention!
    Simba Code:
    program DeclarePlayers;
    {$DEFINE SMART} // This is how we include SMART; it HAS to be called BEFORE SRL!
    {$i srl/srl.simba}

    procedure DeclarePlayers;
    begin
      HowManyPlayers := 1; // This is set to the total amount of players (more on multiplayer later ;)), for now, just keep it set as 1
      NumberOfPlayers(HowManyPlayers); // This is a procedure in SRL which sets up player arrays (also, more on that later), this will always be the same
      CurrentPlayer := 0; // This is the player to start with; the first player will always be 0 (you'll find out when you learn all about arrays)

      Players[0].Name := ''; // Username
      Players[0].Pass := ''; // Password
      Players[0].Nick := ''; // 3-4 lowercase letters from username; used for random event detection
      Players[0].Active := True; // Set to true if you want to use Player 0
      Players[0].Pin := ''; // Leave blank if the player doesn't have a bank pin
    end;

    begin
      ClearDebug;
      SetupSRL;
      DeclarePlayers; // Calls the procedure, you can't forget this!
      LoginPlayer; // You want your player to login, right?
    end.
    I don't expect you to understand everything (like the "Players[0]."), but you should know how to add SMART to your script and how to login your player. You will learn all about Players if you decide to move on to my intermediate and advanced tutorials (just a little glimpse - Players is an array custom type which store all the different player's information. Confused? ).

    Since you now have a DeclarePlayers procedure, lets make our player log in, shall we? Fill out the DeclarePlayers accordingly (with your username/password/nickname), and hit run. Wait a few seconds and you should see the SMART window pop up and the script should execute after you player has been logged in. Your debug box should look something like:
    Progress Report:
    SRL Compiled in 16 msec
    SMART Initialized.
    Loaded: Server 152, Members: False, Signed: True, Super Detail: False.
    Welcome to Runescape.
    Username Here
    Successfully executed.
    Congratulations! You now know all about DeclarePlayers and how to login a player. I bet it wasn't as hard as you thought.


    Failsafes
    Failsafes are essential in ALL scripts made for RuneScape. Failsafes are what make the script last for hours without error. They can be made using all the programming statements, but are most commonly conveyed using if statements. Here's a general layout.
    Simba Code:
    if (Condition1) then
      Action1 // Recall that there's no semicolon here
    else
      if (Condition2) then
        Action2
      else
        if (Condition3) then
          Action3
        else
          if (Condition4) then
            Action4; // Semicolon because it's the last statement
    See how there is always another procedure or "failsafe" to run if the one before it fails? The chances of all four procedures failing isn't very high, hence why some scripts can run for hours - they have awesome failsafes!

    Now, before you rush ahead and read the next example, there are a few things I need to explain so you aren't confused. If you looked at it already, you probably asked yourself "MSX1? What's that?". Those are constants in the SRL include that define coordinates on the RuneScape screen. You'll find them to be very helpful while scripting:
    1. MS - Main Screen - The main RuneScape playing screen.
    2. MM - MiniMap - The RuneScape minimap in the top right corner of the RS screen.
    3. MI - Main Inventory - You inventory box on the right of the RS window, below the minimap.
    4. MC - Main Chat - The RS Chat box at the bottom on the RS window.
    5. MB - Main Bank - The RS bank.
    6. DB - Deposit Box - The RS deposit box.

    Now, to search in one of these boxes, all you have to do is write the two letters, followed by X1, Y1, X2, Y2. There are also center points for each of these boxes, which would have the two letters followed but one of CX or CY. These constants can be found in Simba/Includes/SRL/SRL/core/Globals.simba. If you don't understand, you will after you read this example (keep in mind I don't use every type of box):
    Simba Code:
    program FailsafesExample;
    {.include SRL/SRL.simba}

    procedure FailsafeExample;
    var
      x, y : Integer;
    begin
      if FindColor(x, y, 2167538, MSX1, MSY1, MSX2, MSY2) then // If the color (2167538) is found, the coordinates of where it was found is stored in the variables (x, y).
        MMouse(x, y, 4, 4) // Moves the mouse to x, y; 4, 4 is the randomness on x, y
      else

      begin
        Wait(1000); // Remember 1000ms = 1s
        WriteLn('First FindColor failed, trying second...');
        if FindColor(x, y, 3652378, MMX1, MMY1, MMX2, MMY2) then
          Mouse(x, y, 4, 4, True) // This moves AND left clicks the mouse with randomness 4, 4; 'True' = Left click; 'False' = Right click
        else

        begin
          Wait(1000);
          WriteLn('Second FindColor failed, trying third...');
          if FindColor(x, y, 4981245, MIX1, MIY1, MIX2, MIY2) then
            MMouse(x, y, 4, 4)
          else

          begin
            Wait(1000);
            WriteLn('Third FindColor failed, trying forth...');
            if FindColor(x, y, 6478356, MCX1, MCY1, MCX2, MCY2) then
              Mouse(x, y, 4, 4, True)
            else

            begin
              Wait(1000);
              WriteLn('Forth FindColors failed, logging out');
              Logout; // This is pretty straight forward, it logs your player out
            end;
          end;
        end;
      end;
    end; // There are so many 'end's because each begin has to have an end, otherwise you will get an "Identifier expected..." error

    begin
      ClearDebug;
      FailsafeExample;
    end.
    I made that example to purposely fail, so you would get the idea of how a failsafe works. Do you understand what they do? Do you understand how to move the mouse, how to click the mouse? Do you understand how to specify which box you want to look in? Keep in mind that the box can be any integer values you wish. These constants are just there for your convenience.

    If you successfully wrote the above script, when you hit play, the debug box should read:
    Progress Report:
    First FindColor failed, trying second...
    Second FindColor failed, trying third...
    Third FindColor failed, trying forth...
    Forth FindColors failed, logging out
    Successfully executed.
    That is just one example of a failsafe. There are literally 1000s of possibilities, some of which I hope to show you in the more advanced tutorials. You are now finished learning all about failsafes. Now, on to the last part of the tutorial.


    Antiban and AntiRandoms
    Antiban and AntiRandoms are also an essential to ALL RuneScape scripts. The definitions should be pretty straight forward, but I'll explain them anyhow.
    • Antiban - Procedures/functions that prevent your character from getting banned. Antiban makes your character look more "human-like". Movements like random camera angle motions, random examination of objects/items or random game tab (inventory, quest, music, etc) clicking, etc. Again, there are 100s of possibilites.

    • AntiRandoms - Procedures/Functions that solve the many RuneScape random events. Don't panic! All the solvable random events are already implimented into SRL. The only thing you have to do is add one line of code.


    Antiban
    • Almost all Antiban procedures are made using a case statement. There are also several antiban procedures already in SRL. All we have to do is put a few of them together, and away we are.

    • First, I want you to go to your SRL folder and open Antiban.simba (Includes/SRL/SRL/core/Antiban.simba). See how there are several antiban procedures? If you want to know what they do, click the one you want on the functions list, scroll up a bit, and you will see a description of the procedure, and how to use it. Here is an example of a typical antiban procedure (usually common in every script, no matter the author):
      Simba Code:
      (**
       * The reason I used Random(60), even though there are only 6 antiban
       * procedures is because if you antiban too much, you will look like a bot.
       * You want to antiban approx. once every ten times the procedure is called
       *)

      procedure Antiban;
      begin
        case Random(60) of // Random(60) generates a random integer from 0 to 59
          10: RandomRClick;
          20: HoverSkill('Mining', False);
          30: PickUpMouse;
          40: RandomMovement;
          50: BoredHuman;
          59: ExamineInv;
        end;
      end;
    • Antiban procedures can be as basic or as advanced as you want them. The more advanced, the better, obviously. Everytime the above procedure is called in your script, if the result from Random(60) equals 10, 20, 30, etc., then it will do the corresponding antiban procedure. Neat, huh?



    AntiRandoms
    • Knowing the definition, I'm sure you are thinking it's going to be extremely difficult to implement random event solving in your script. Well, you thought wrong. It is actually very, very simple. The first thing you should do is add this little piece of code to your DeclarePlayers procedure:
      Simba Code:
      Players[0].BoxRewards := ['Xp', 'mote', 'ostume', 'oins', 'aphire', 'ssence'];
      Any other rewards can easily be added. This line will randomly choose one of the options when a reward box is opened. The 'Xp' option is the option to get a gene lamp.

    • If you are wondering why there is '' around each option, it is because they are strings, and that's how strings are declared, remember? Also, a positive to having that in your DeclarePlayers procedure is that the user of the script can choose different rewards for different players.

    • You should also know why there are [] around all the strings. This is because it's a TStringArray (you'll learn more on arrays in the more advanced tutorials).

    • Now, on to what we need to write as a procedure. Here is an example of a common AntiRandoms procedure and when it may be called:
      Simba Code:
      procedure AntiRandoms;
      begin
        FindNormalRandoms; // Whenever this is called, the script will check to see if your character is in a random event
        LampSkill := 'woodcutting'; // If you set the script to choose an experience lamp from a random event box, it will use the exp on the woddcutting skill

        LevelUp; // This is an Antiban procedure, but I find it more useful when called here because AntiRandoms is usually called more often than Antiban
      end;

      procedure ChopTrees;
      begin
        // Chopping trees code here
        while (IsChopping) do // IsChopping isn't an actual function, it is one I made up for this example, so don't go try using it in one of your scripts ;)
        begin
          Antiban; // This is an example of when you would call an antiban procedure
          AntiRandoms; // Call AntiRandoms while your character is chopping down a tree
        end;
      end;
    • See? I bet that's much easier than you expected. So basically, while your character is hacking away at a tree, the script will continually search for random events, so if you happen to end up in one, the script can solve it without problems. I highly recommend you put FindNormalRandoms in almost all of your procedures so that no matter where you get sucked into a random event, your script can still attempt to solve it.


    Well, that's it for Antiban and AntiRandoms. Every script you write for RuneScape should include both of these. These significantly decrease your changes at a ban (not that the chances are very high to begin with). Also, don't be afraid to use your imagination and create your own Antiban procedures. Remember, not EVERYTHING is in SRL.


    Conclusion
    Well there you have it! My beginner's tutorial. To be quite honest, you probably won't be able to make a RuneScape script with what you've learned so far. But don't worry! You've learned what it takes to make a working script. You know the basics, and everything from here on in is just learning the different Simba commands and how to use them (with a few new programming concepts here and there).

    Remember to always ask questions if you're unsure about something. I have no problem giving a more detailed explanation on something if you need it. Don't be afraid to post your questions and either I or someone else from the community will replay as soon as possible.

    I would also like to encourage you to post any scripts you write that started with this tutorial. It's always nice to see how this has helped people. Also, if you just want me to take a look over your script and give you detailed feedback/suggestions, feel free to post it here.

    In the meantime, see if you can tackle my Intermediate Tutorial (not actually finished yet) in the intermediate scripting tutorials section. Until that is finished, you can continue with the intermediate/advanced sections in my AIO SCAR Scripting Tutorial. I hope this helped you learn the basics of programming.

    Cheers,
    Coh3n
    Last edited by Coh3n; 10-13-2013 at 11:14 PM. Reason: Writeln -> WriteLn

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    This took me a few months to rewrite, so I wouldn't expect the intermediate guide to be finished anytime soon, since I now have even less time with school and hockey. Nevertheless, enjoy!

    Coh3n

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    you and your tuts coh3n... excellent job, i'll have a better look-see over it later =)

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    nice job, bro.

    just power skimmed and it's noice , perhaps:

    The begin..end. is called your Main Loop. SCAR will read the code in your main loop as your script and run is as you please. If you would like SCAR to run a function or procedure, you have to include them in your main loop. More on script structure later.
    SCAR should be Simba? (although the explanation works for SCAR as well, it's a Simba tutorial )

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    Terrific job. Too bad I can't give you a second Tutorial writers cup.

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    OMF... Wow.. Great job as always! Rep++

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    Very nice Cohen!

    "Failure is the opportunity to begin again more intelligently" (Henry Ford)


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    Quote Originally Posted by Craig` View Post
    nice job, bro.

    just power skimmed and it's noice , perhaps:



    SCAR should be Simba? (although the explanation works for SCAR as well, it's a Simba tutorial )
    Nice find. Fixed.

    Quote Originally Posted by Wizzup? View Post
    Terrific job. Too bad I can't give you a second Tutorial writers cup.
    Ha, well someone's gotta start some Simba tutorials, I figured it'd be me.

    To the rest of you, thanks.

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    Wtfhax. I wish this was around when I began to learn how to script. (I remember when I finally learned how to use MMouse lol)

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    Quote Originally Posted by DeSnob View Post
    Wtfhax. I wish this was around when I began to learn how to script. (I remember when I finally learned how to use MMouse lol)
    My AIO guide was probably around, but I'm assuming you mean for Simba.

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    Found an error on the top part or "Part 1" as i should say you have

    Progress Report:
      Writeln('We are chopping ' + TreeToCut + ' trees!');


    as you should have
    Progress Report:
     Writeln('We are chopping ' + Tree_To_Cut + 'trees!');


    Because your Const is TREE_TO_CUT, i kept getting a error when i entered the first time, and then i remeberd you have to claim it the exact same way or it will give an error

    Thanks learned from part one and will more on to part 2 "standards" later

    My brain hurts xD lol

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    Quote Originally Posted by squancy View Post
    Found an error on the top part or "Part 1" as i should say you have

    Progress Report:
      Writeln('We are chopping ' + TreeToCut + ' trees!');


    as you should have
    Progress Report:
     Writeln('We are chopping ' + Tree_To_Cut + 'trees!');


    Because your Const is TREE_TO_CUT, i kept getting a error when i entered the first time, and then i remeberd you have to claim it the exact same way or it will give an error

    Thanks learned from part one and will more on to part 2 "standards" later

    My brain hurts xD lol
    Nice find, thanks. I thought I actually ran all the example I made, but apparently I missed one.

    Thanks, and good luck with the rest of the guide.

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    Thank you for spending so much time to write this tut. I'm a newbie when it comes to scripting so I was having trouble just using scripts and this guide has really helped me out.

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    Quote Originally Posted by dhandley12 View Post
    Thank you for spending so much time to write this tut. I'm a newbie when it comes to scripting so I was having trouble just using scripts and this guide has really helped me out.
    I'm glad it helped you out.

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    Very nice guide =)


    Small Note: I personally like too keep things like "string, integer, boolean" (Built-in types) all lowercase.
    Then Types added like "Players, TStringArray, TItem" in its original camel caps

    Dg's Small Procedures | IRC Quotes
    Thank Wishlah for my nice new avatar!
    Quote Originally Posted by IRC
    [22:12:05] <Dgby714> Im agnostic
    [22:12:36] <Blumblebee> :O ...you can read minds

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dgby714 View Post
    Very nice guide =)


    Small Note: I personally like too keep things like "string, integer, boolean" (Built-in types) all lowercase.
    Then Types added like "Players, TStringArray, TItem" in its original camel caps
    Did I say they should be capitalized? String should be lowercase because it's bold, but for the others, I think it's up to the scripter.

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    Wanted to point out this bit to you.

    Simba Code:
    // Using a function
    function WeAreBored: string;
    var // Declareing variables locally
      s: String;
    begin
      Result := 'What are we going to do now?'; // Notice that "Result" is a string because the function returns a string
      s := 'We are very bored chopping all these logs!';
      Wait(500);
      Writeln(s); // Notice no "IntToStr" because the variable "s" is already a string
      Wait(500);
      Writeln(Result);
      Wait(500);
    end;

    begin // Don't forget to put your procedures/functions in the main loop!
      ClearDebug; // This procedure just clears the debug box when you click run
      HowManyLogs;
      WeAreBored;
    end. //Notice the '.', signalling the end of the script

    Your not actually using the function as a function in this instance. WeAreBored is not outputing anything. it's just doing the writeln's inside the routine. Nice Tut though. Still reading I post anymore that I see.

    "Sometimes User's don't need the Answer spelled out with Code. Sometimes all they need is guidance and explanation of the logic to get where they are going."

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    Quote Originally Posted by BraK View Post
    Wanted to point out this bit to you.

    Your not actually using the function as a function in this instance. WeAreBored is not outputing anything. it's just doing the writeln's inside the routine. Nice Tut though. Still reading I post anymore that I see.
    Thanks BraK. Fixed now.

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    Your Tutorial is really good. I learned a bit from the try except finally part. Then had a good long look at my Tut and had a realization. I need to work on my writing skills more. My tut looks like crap compared to yours.

    "Sometimes User's don't need the Answer spelled out with Code. Sometimes all they need is guidance and explanation of the logic to get where they are going."

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    Quote Originally Posted by BraK View Post
    Your Tutorial is really good. I learned a bit from the try except finally part. Then had a good long look at my Tut and had a realization. I need to work on my writing skills more. My tut looks like crap compared to yours.
    Haha, I'm pretty anal about organization and stuff like that.

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    Beautifully done Coh3n! It is nice, clean, intuitive. You and your tuts.. Well done good sir, well done.
    On vacation in NeverLand,

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    Quote Originally Posted by anonymity View Post
    Beautifully done Coh3n! It is nice, clean, intuitive. You and your tuts.. Well done good sir, well done.
    Thanks anonymity.

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    Nice tutorial Coh3n.

    Any chance you could make a worksheet or quiz-sheet to exercise what is learned from the tutorial?
    (i.e. - "Make a script that..." or "What does ______ do?")

    I hope I don't sound silly asking this.

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    Great this has helped me loads, thanks.
    Quote Originally Posted by Coh3n View Post
    Hello, and welcome to the first of three of my all-in-one scripting tutorials.
    Just one question how can you have three all in ones? Won't it be All in Three?

    Anyway thanks for this

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